Immanuel Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a German philosopher who was born and lived in Königsberg, Prussia. He grew up in a Lutheran Protestant household that focused on the literal interpretation of the Bible. This religious upbringing is taught through the lens of humility and devotion. He enrolled into the University of Königsberg at the age of … Continue reading Immanuel Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason

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Thomas Reid: Common Sense (revised)

"The stakes of philosophy are often high. How we answer the three fundamental problems of philosophy: the problem of knowledge, conduct, and governance governs our way of life for those that live according to their own philosophy. Aristotle began his treatise titled Metaphysics with this: All men by nature desire to know. An indication of … Continue reading Thomas Reid: Common Sense (revised)

Mary, Quite Contrary: Consciousness Unexplained

What is the ultimate nature of reality? In Philosophy of mind, there are many positions regarding what has real being. On a commonsense level, dualism seems to be the reality. Thoughts, beliefs, and qualia really do seem to be different from tables, apples, and automobiles; therefore, according to dualists, there are two types of stuff … Continue reading Mary, Quite Contrary: Consciousness Unexplained

William James: The Mind-Stuff Theory

Principles of Psychology: The Mind-Stuff Theory Evolutionary Psychology Demands a Mind-Dust.   In a general theory of evolution the inorganic comes first, then the lowest forms of animal and vegetable life, then forms of life that possess mentality, and finally those like ourselves that possess it in a high degree. As long as we keep … Continue reading William James: The Mind-Stuff Theory